Class 10 Science Biology Heredity and Evolution



Which ones of the following are analogous structures?
(a)
Gills of Prawn and lungs of Man
(b)
Thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita
(c)
Flippers of Dolphin and logs of Horse
(d)
Wings of Bat and wings of Pigeon
Correct answer: (a) 
Solution: 
  • When we compare the anatomy of different animals, we find some similarities among them. For example, the forelimbs of different vertebrates are similar in origin and internal structure. All these indicate that there is a relationship among the organisms. These relationships can be studied under
 1) Analogous organs
2) Homologous organs
3) Vestigial organs
4) Atavistic organs
5) Connecting links
  • The organs which have dissimilar structure and origin but perform the same function are called analogous organs. Analogous organs suggest 'convergent evolution'.
e.g. wings of a butterfly and wings of a bird
  • When different animals live in the same habitat, they tend to show similarity in body form, e.g. shark and whale have the same body form as both live in the aquatic environment. Earthworm and snake have the same body form as both live in burrows. This type of evolution is called 'convergent evolution'.
  • So the correct option is 'Gills of prawn and lungs of Man'.

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components of food
heredity and evolution
how do organisms reproduce?
microorganisms: friend and foe
why do we fall ill?