Class 11 Biology Plant Physiology Plant Growth and Development



Write short notes on:
(a) Cytokinin,  (b) Phytochrome,  (c) Vernalization,  (d) Photoperiodism
Solution: (a) Cytokinin: Cytokinins are a class of plant growth substances that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence.
    (b) Phytochrome: Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light. They are sensitive to light in the red and far-red region of the visible spectrum and can be classed as either Type I, which are activated by far-red light, or Type II that are activated by a red light.
    (c) Verbalization: Vernalization is the induction of a plant's flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent. After vernalization, plants have acquired the ability to flower, but they may require additional seasonal cues or weeks of growth before they will actually flower.
    (d) Photoperiodism: Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. It occurs in plants and animals. Photoperiodism can also be defined as the developmental responses of plants to the relative lengths of light and dark periods.


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plant growth and development
respiration in plants
transport in plants
anatomy of flowering plants
photosynthesis in higher plants